**Mathematics Pathways**

**Course Descriptions**

**Honours Courses**

**Course Outlines**

**Mathematics Pathways**

Starting at the grade 10 level, students are provided with the opportunity to choose 1 or more “pathway” in Mathematics. Regardless of which pathway is chosen, students must successfully complete a grade 11 Mathematics course in order to meet the graduation requirements.

**Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics **

This pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills identified for entry into the majority of trades and for direct entry into the work force. Topics include algebra, geometry, measurement, number, statistics and probability.

**Foundations of Mathematics**

This pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills identified for post-secondary studies in programs that do not require the study of calculus. Topics include financial mathematics, geometry, measurement, number, logical reasoning, relations and functions, statistics and probability.

**Pre-Calculus**

This pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills identified for entry into post-secondary programs that require the study of calculus. Topics include algebra and number, measurement, relations and functions, trigonometry, permutations, combinations and the binomial theorem.

All three pathways are designed to provide students with mathematical understandings and critical thinking skills. It is the choice of topics through which those skills are developed that varies among the pathways. The common goal of all pathways is to provide prerequisite skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for specific career choices while still proving mathematically rigorous courses.

### Course Descriptions

**Mathematics 8**

This course is designed to develop deep mathematical understandings in a variety of topics. Students will progress from the use of “hands-on” manipulatives to more abstract routines and strategies in order to comprehend and solve problems effectively and efficiently. Topics include proportion, operations with fractions, the Pythagorean Theorem, probability and statistics, and tessellations.

**Mathematics 9**

This course is designed to consolidate and extend topics introduced in Mathematics 8. Topics include operations with rational numbers, square roots, exponents, polynomials, algebra, linear relations, geometry, and statistics. At the end of this course, students will be prepared for either Foundations of Mathematics and Pre- Calculus 10 or Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 10.

**Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 10**

This course is designed to provide students with the mathematical understanding and critical-thinking skills required for entry into the majority of trades and for direct entry into the work force. Topics include metric and imperial measurement systems, geometry, trigonometry, income, spending, and debt. This course has a mandatory provincial exam worth 20% of the final course mark. At the end of this course, students are prepared to take Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 11.

**Foundations of Mathematics and Pre-Calculus 10**

This course is designed to provide students with mathematical understandings and critical thinking skills identified for post secondary studies in both the arts and the sciences. Topics include surface area and volume of 3-D objects, trigonometry, irrational numbers, powers involving integral and rational exponents, polynomials, coordinate geometry, system of linear equations, and function notation. At the end of this course, students are prepared for Apprenticeship and Workplace 11, Foundations of Mathematics 11, and/or Pre-Calculus 11.

**Apprenticeship and Workplace Mathematics 11**

This course satisfies the Ministry of Education’s mathematics graduation requirements.

This course is designed for students who are planning on entering the workforce directly after high school, or who are planning on pursuing a career in the trades industries. Topics include reasoning, rates of change, measurement, and statistics. Students who successfully master the learning outcomes of this course may continue on to Apprentice and Workplace Mathematics 12.

**Foundations of Mathematics 11**

This course is designed to provide students with mathematical understandings and critical thinking skills identified for post secondary studies in the arts or the humanities. Topics include logic and reasoning, functions, geometry, and statistics. Students who successfully master the learning outcomes of this course may continue on to Foundations of Mathematics 12

**Pre-Calculus 11**

This course is designed for students who are planning on pursuing post-secondary studies in math or sciences. Topics include relations and functions, trigonometry, polynomial functions, and graphing. Students who successfully master the learning outcomes of this course may continue on to Pre-calculus 12.

**Foundations of Mathematics 12.**

The practical focus of theFoundations of Mathematics 12. pathway is designed to enable students to develop their mathematical knowledge, skills, and attitudes in the context of their lives and possible careers. There is increased emphasis on concrete activities and modeling, and decreased emphasis on symbol manipulation (Algebra). The Foundations pathway begins in grade 10.

**Pre-Calculus 12**

See course outline. .Students in the Pre-Calculus Mathematics pathway will spend more time developing their knowledge of symbol manipulation (Algebra) and the more formal generalizations of mathematical concepts. This pathway is intended for students who may wish to pursue mathematical-related studies at the post-secondary level and prepares students for the study of Calculus

**Honours Courses**

At each grade level, students may apply to enrol in a Mathematics Honours course. Each honours course has the same learning outcomes, text, and curriculum as the associated course, but each also includes a significant enrichment supplement based on the Waterloo Mathematics Competitions. Students who complete the Honours pathway often proceed to Advanced Placement courses.

As part of their application to the honours program, students are required to participate in the Waterloo Contest at their grade level. A combination of the student’s Waterloo mark and class mark from the previous year is used to determine placement..

## Mathematics Department Course Outlines

**Grade 8**

**Grade 9**

**Grade 10**

**Grade 11**

**Grade 12**